With Coronavirus rapidly glitching lives worldwide, the race of developing a vaccine to combat and eliminate the merciless virus has also attained a greater pace.
From The States to India, the process of inventing a permanent shield is much rapid - even faster than the spread of the virus. The vaccines which generally take decades - or at least years to achieve a global acceptance.
Particularly, a vaccine is produced in 4 phases. Various stakeholders are currently These include -
- Developing a candidate vaccine. This is generally done by using a weakened form of virus or bacteria or its genetic code into section(parts). When injected into the human body, the immune system develops resistance to it, and whenever a further attack of the virus occurs, the body recognizes it, and treats it accordingly.
- Testing it on humans as well as on animals(which show similar activities as that of humans). This is usually done in a bunch of 100 or 1000. During the process, it is ensured that those who have been trialed, do not suffer any life threat due to vaccination. A compensation bond for this purpose is also made to be signed by producers and testers.
- Another stage includes a trial on a larger scale, if the vaccine proves to be successful in the 1st round of examinations. This is generally done in a group of thousands of different age groups and genders, so as to observe as if there is any demerit of the vaccine produced. Moreover, the vaccine is also tested for seasonal complications, if any.
- If the vaccine further proves the effectiveness, then it is used for the trials on the number of portions required to culminate the virus. This may be required to inject quarterly, annually, or once in a lifetime.
- If all these phases of trials succeed, then the vaccine is sent for approval of the Drug Regulatory Authorities, such as FDA(Food and Drug Authority)of the USA.
Further, global production and manufacturing is achieved by licensing. This cost includes the cost of production, risk covers, etc.
Vaccines for treatment against Mumps, Polio, and Hepatitis were also challenging, but not to the extent that one against this SARS CoV-2 is. This is because of emerging new symptoms with increasing cases, which makes it difficult to prepare a vaccine to protect a person completely against a disease. The administrations are putting all their effort to find a shield. However, various stakeholders have undermined the proper procedures to be followed accordingly as per WHO's Therapeutic Goods Administration. About 100 types of vaccines are under development around the world, with 10 in preliminary stages of human testing -
- Oxford University has claimed to deliver a vaccine made from adenovirus( virus of the common cold in chimpanzees) by September, and has ignored the animal trials to be done, which usually takes 3-6 months. Sarah Gilbert, a professor in the vaccinology institute, has become the 1st person to be tested out of a pool of 800. The vaccine code for spike protein has been used for trials, so as to produce the results efficiently. The results are still awaited. If successful, the vaccine can be manufactured with a production rate of 5 million units per month, and the distribution policies still uncertain.
- Trials of efficiency of Remdesivir, an antiviral drug in China is still under process Early results can be made available within 3 months. However, the American President has approved the drug for treatment without any results, putting the lives of thousands in danger.
- Another drug under trials is Hydroxychloroquine, a drug used to treat Malaria. Interestingly, a diplomatic heat was observed between India and the USA regarding the exports of this medicine. But, after observing the opposite behavior to what was expected, its usage has been banned.
- Actemra, an antibody used to treat Rheumatoid Arthritis, is under 15 registered trials in Europe, China, and the USA.
- Ritonavir, a drug used against Hepatitis, is in its preliminary stage, with earlier results to be expected in May.
- Australia has begun the trials on Ferrets - furry animals with results expected by the end of the year.
Indirect stakeholders: How they are proving their worth?
Those not holding an open stake, are also providing every means of aid to leave no stone unturned in this battle. Bill Gates has decided to fund 7 vaccine production firms of the US, those who are preparing the Corona vaccine, despite knowing about the absolute loss.UK Government is funding the project of Oxford University financially with £42.5 million.
How is India rendering to this noble cause?
India is participating with an accelerated pace for providing assistance in the development of a vaccine.
- Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd..(SIIPL) has collaborated with Oxford University, a US-based biotech company Codagenix and its own combination of BCG vaccine. The Indian company is committed to initiate the human trials in India in the month of May, and to provide the dosage with a price capping of Rs 1,000 with a No Profit intention.
- Bharat Biotech, the company which was a major vaccine producer against H1NI of 2009, will produce 300 million doses of Coroflu - the company's own production corona vaccines.
- Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre(GBRC) has collaborated with Neuberg Supratech to develop a recombinant vaccine against the virus.
- IIT- Guwahati has tied with Hester Biosciences to develop a pathogenic vaccine.
- Zydus Cadila has also developed a vaccine which is under preclinical trial stages.
Since the only solution against this none - defendable contagious disease is a vaccine, it is expected that the scientific and defensive approach of developers will prove to be of worth and we will soon emerge as a winner against this social enemy. Till that time, remain inside your homes and obey Social Distancing.